Dr. Gruber, one of the pioneers in gene therapy, co-founded Tocagen and led the company as Chief Executive Officer before assuming the role of President, Research and Development in November 2016. He also serves as a member of Tocagen’s board of directors. Previously, Dr. Gruber was a founder and/or inventor of the underlying technology for the following public companies, which achieved a combined value over $7 billion: Viagene, Inc. (a gene therapy company acquired by Novartis Pharmaceuticals), Gensia Inc. (acquired by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd.), INTERVU Inc. (acquired by Akamai Technologies, Inc.), Kintera Inc. (acquired by Blackbaud) and Metabasis, Inc. (acquired by Ligand Pharmaceuticals). He is the author of over 100 original scientific articles and an inventor on over 100 issued and pending patents. Dr. Gruber holds a medical degree and bachelor’s degree from the University of Pennsylvania and trained in internal medicine, biochemical genetics and rheumatology/immunology at the University of California, San Diego, where he subsequently joined the medical school faculty until founding Gensia Inc.