As one of the pioneers in gene therapy, Dr. Gruber co-founded Tocagen™, a company dedicated to the development and commercialization of breakthrough treatments for cancer using advanced gene transfer technology. He also serves as a director at Tocagen. Previously, Dr. Gruber was a founder and/or inventor of the underlying technology for the following public companies, which achieved a combined value over $7 billion: Viagene, Inc. (a gene therapy company acquired by Novartis Pharmaceuticals), Gensia Inc. (acquired by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd.), INTERVU Inc. (acquired by Akamai Technologies, Inc.), Kintera Inc. (acquired by Blackbaud) and Metabasis, Inc. (acquired by Ligand Pharmaceuticals). He is the author of over 100 original scientific articles and an inventor on over 33 issued and numerous pending patents. Dr. Gruber holds a BA and a MD from the University of Pennsylvania and trained in Internal Medicine, Biochemical Genetics and Rheumatology/Immunology at the University of California, San Diego, where he subsequently joined the medical school faculty until founding Gensia Inc.