Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant form of brain tumor. Its cells reproduce quickly and are nourished by a large network of blood vessels, fueling rapid growth and making it the most deadly of brain cancers. Because of its aggressiveness, GBM is categorized as a high grade glioma (HGG).
GBM is the most common form of HGG, with an annual incidence of approximately 12,000 in the United States. It accounts for about half of all brain and central nervous system cancers and is reported to have a five-year survival rate of about five percent.
GBM tumors can be difficult to treat because they are made up of many different types of cells, which may not respond to the same type of therapy. Studies have identified several important predictive or prognostic biomarkers including MGMT promoter methylation, IDH mutation status, 1p19q co-deletion, and ATRX expression loss.
Symptoms vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but most patients experience pressure in the brain as a result of the tumor’s fast growth.
Given the relatively young age at diagnosis, more years of productive life are lost in patients with brain tumors compared to other cancers.
Tocagen is developing an investigational therapy to treat GBM and anaplastic astrocytoma and is currently recruiting patients into its Phase 2/3 clinical trial, Toca 5. Learn about the Toca 5 trial.
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