Types of Brain Tumors

The World Health Organization recognizes many different types of brain tumors, which are classified by cell origin and how the cells behave, from the least aggressive (benign) to the most aggressive (malignant).

Some tumor types are assigned a grade, ranging from Grade I (least malignant) to Grade IV (most malignant), which signifies the rate of growth.

The most common brain tumors are gliomas, which begin in the glial (supportive) tissue. There are several types of gliomas, the most aggressive of which are known as high grade gliomas (HGGs).

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive (Grade IV) type of brain tumor, with cells that reproduce quickly—nourished by a large network of blood vessels. GBM is the most common type of HGG, with an annual incidence of approximately 12,000 in the United States. It accounts for about half of all primary brain and central nervous system cancers.

Unfortunately, GBM is also the most deadly form of all primary brain cancer, with five-year survival rates of about five percent.

Tocagen is developing a new therapy to combat HGGs that have not responded or have recurred following first-line treatment. The company is now recruiting patients into the Phase 2 portion of a Phase 2/3 clinical trial, which measures Tocagen’s investigational therapy against the current standard of care in recurrent HGG.

Learn about the Toca 5 trial.

See additional brain cancer resources below: